This module should occupy approximately 30% of total course time.

Module Description

This compulsory module examines the factors that affect performance. In this module, students explore the physical and psychological bases of performance. They experience and critically analyse approaches to training and skill development and investigate the contributions of psychology, nutrition and recovery strategies to performance.
In this module, students investigate the following critical questions: · How does training affect performance? · How can psychology affect performance? · How can nutrition and recovery strategies affect performance? · How does the acquisition of skill affect performance?
This module enables students to take action to influence their own performance and enhance that of others through coaching applications.
Opportunity is provided in the HSC option Improving Performance for more detailed consideration of factors affecting performance and the considerations of a coach in supporting the performance of athletes.
A student:
H7. explains the relationship between physiology and movement potential H8. explains how a variety of training approaches and other interventions enhance performance and safety in physical activity H9. explains how movement skill is acquired and appraised H10. designs and implements training plans to improve performance H11. designs psychological strategies and nutritional plans in response to individual performance needs H16. devises methods of gathering, interpreting and communicating information about health and physical activity concepts H17. selects appropriate options and formulates strategies based on a critical analysis of the factors that affect performance and safe participation.
How does training affect performance?

Teacher Note: Students should be provided with opportunities to explore the concepts dealt with in this module through a variety of practical experiences.

Students learn about:
Students learn to:
· energy systems

- alactacid system (ATP/PC)

- lactic acid system

- aerobic system
· analyse each energy system by exploring:

– source of fuel

– efficiency of ATP production

– duration that the system can operate

– cause of fatigue

– by-products of energy production

– process and rate of recovery
· types of training and training methods

- aerobic, eg continuous, Fartlek, aerobic interval, circuit

- anaerobic, eg anaerobic interval

- flexibility, eg static, ballistic, PNF, dynamic

- strength training, eg free/fixed weights, elastic, hydraulic
· assess the relevance of the types of training and training methods for a variety of sports by asking questions such as:

- which types of training are best suited to different sports?

- which training method(s) would be most appropriate? Why?

- how would this training affect performance?
· principles of training

- progressive overload

- specificity

- reversibility

- variety

- training thresholds

- warm up and cool down
· analyse how the principles of training can be applied to both aerobic and resistance training
· physiological adaptations in response to training

- resting heart rate

- stroke volume and cardiac output

- oxygen uptake and lung capacity

- haemoglobin level

- muscle hypertrophy

- effect on fast/slow twitch muscle fibres
· examine the relationship between the principles of training, physiological adaptations and improved performance
How can psychology affect performance?
Students learn about:
Students learn to:
· motivation

- positive and negative

- intrinsic and extrinsic
· evaluate performance scenarios to determine the appropriate forms of motivation, eg golf versus boxing
· anxiety and arousal

- trait and state anxiety

- sources of stress

- optimum arousal
· explain the difference between anxiety and arousal in terms of the effects on performance
· psychological strategies to enhance motivation and manage anxiety

- concentration/attention skills (focusing)

- mental rehearsal/visualisation/imagery

- relaxation techniques

- goal-setting.
· research case studies of athletes from different sports and ascertain the nature of their motivation and the psychological strategies they employ.
How can nutrition and recovery strategies affect performance?
Students learn about:
Students learn to:
· nutritional considerations

- pre-performance, including carbohydrate loading

- during performance

- post-performance

· supplementation

- vitamins/minerals

- protein

- caffeine

- creatine products

· recovery strategies

- physiological strategies, eg cool down, hydration

- neural strategies, eg hydrotherapy, massage

- tissue damage strategies, eg cryotherapy

- psychological strategies, eg relaxation.
· compare the dietary requirements of athletes in different sports considering pre-, during and post-performance needs

· critically analyse the evidence for and against supplementation for improved performance

· research recovery strategies to discern their main features and proposed benefits to performance.
How does the acquisition of skill affect performance?
Students learn about:
Students learn to:
· stages of skill acquisition

- cognitive

- associative

- autonomous
· examine the stages of skill acquisition by participating in the learning of a new skill, eg juggling, throwing with the non-dominant arm
· characteristics of the learner, eg personality, heredity, confidence, prior experience, ability
· describe how the characteristics of the learner can influence skill acquisition and the performance of skills

· the learning environment

- nature of the skill (open, closed, gross, fine, discrete, serial, continuous, self-paced, externally paced)

- the performance elements (decision-making, strategic and tactical development)

- practice method (massed, distributed, whole, part)

- feedback (internal, external, concurrent, delayed, knowledge of results, knowledge of performance)
· design a suitable plan for teaching beginners to acquire a skill through to mastery. The plan should reflect:

- appropriate practice methods for the learners

- the integration of relevant performance elements

- an awareness of how instruction may vary according to characteristics of the learner

- how feedback will be used as learners progress through the stages of skill acquisition
· assessment of skill and performance

- characteristics of skilled performers, eg kinaesthetic sense, anticipation, consistency, technique

- objective and subjective performance measures

- validity and reliability of tests

- personal versus prescribed judging criteria
· develop and evaluate objective and subjective performance measures to appraise performance

Suggested teaching and learning strategies

Prepare a flow chart representing the chain of events in the production and use of aerobic and anaerobic energy. Have students explain their diagrams to other students.
Demonstrate an understanding of the process of skill acquisition by teaching skills to a group of younger students.
Conduct an experiment on the influence of feedback in a skill development session. Prepare a report critiquing the various forms of feedback available and the degree to which each is likely to enhance the learning process.
Critically review an article on psychological influences on performance, outlining their relevance to personal application.
  1. Board of Studies Website at http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/
  2. HSC On-line Website at http://hsc.csu.edu.au/pdhpe/index.htm
  3. Sample Multiple Choice Questions at http://www4.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/go/higher-school-certificate/pdhpe/
  4. Peak Performance at http://www.pponline.co.uk/ (training)
  5. Nutrition Australia at www.nutritionaustralia.org/
  6. Australian Sports Nutrition at www.australiansportsnutrition.com.au/asn_sports.php

1. Demonstrate why it is necessary to determine the energy system required by an activity before designing a training routine.
2. An athlete is about to run in the school cross country event. Predict the physiological responses the athlete will go through before, during and after the run.and swims laps for 1km each day. Critically evaluate Sarah's training program.

3. Discuss how coaching instructions may need to be modified to suit the characteristics of the learner.
4. Sarah, a 13 year old sprint swimmer, is preparing for her State Trials in two months time. She currently cycles 3 mornings per week for 10kms, jogs with her father each evening for 45 minutes and swims laps for 1km each day. Critically evaluate Sarah's training program.
5. Distinguish between arousal and anxiety in terms of their effect on performance.
6. Jason is a winger in a local district football team. As part of his regular training routine, he completes 8 x 40m sprints at 90% intensity, with 45 second rest between each. Explain how Jason could incorporate the principles of progressive overload and specificity into his routine.
7. Distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic thresholds and their relevance to an athlete's training program.
8. Discuss how a strength program for a springboard diver would differ from that of a competitive weight-lifter.
9. Propose reasons why a cricketer is also usually good at golf, but will struggle at playing soccer.
10. Describe how the principles of training can be incorporated into a flexibility program.
11. Bob, aged 50, wants to join a local gym. Before a program is designed for him, the trainer insists that he completes a pre-screening questionnaire. Explain the purpose behind this request.
12. Peter is a 15 year old basketball player. H has been out of the competition for the past year due to knee injuries but is planning to start a training program so he can be ready for his trials in 3 months. Design a weekly aerobic training program for Peter.
13. Discuss how the FITT Principle can be adapted to meet the individual needs of an athlete.
14. The stroke volume of a fit athlete is considerably higher than an unfit athlete. Explain why this leads to superior performance.
15. A gymnast is competing in the vault at the Olympic Games. Describe the types and sources of motivation that she would experience.

Click on the link below to see how the VO2 Max test is used in Sports Performance